Cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome components: a cross-sectional study from Maracaibo City, Venezuela [version 1; referees: 1 approved with reservations]





Bermudez, Valmore
Olivar, Luis Carlos
Torres, Wheeler
Navarro, Carla
Gonzalez, Robys
Morocho, Alicia
Mindiola, Andres
Chacin, Maricarmen
Arias, Victor
Añez, Roberto

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F1000 Research Ltda


Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that cigarette smoking can cause the onset of metabolic syndrome prior to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking habit and metabolic syndrome components in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methods: The Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with random and multi-stage sampling. In this sub-study, 2212 adults from both genders were selected. On the basis of their medical background, they were classified as smokers, non-smokers and former smokers. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to Harmonizing 2009 criteria, using population-specific abdominal circumference cut-off points. The association between risk factors was evaluated using a logistic regression model. Results: In the studied population, 14.8% were smokers, 15.4% were former smokers. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of metabolic syndrome (smokers: OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.11–2.14; p=0.010) and its components were related to cigarette smoking, with the exception of hyperglycemia. High blood pressure was inversely associated with current smoking status (smokers: OR, 0.70 (0.51–0.95); p=0.025).


Palabras clave

Smoking habit, Metabolic syndrome, Smokers, Hypertension, Cardiovascular risk