Validación de las propiedades psicométricas de la escala breve de estrategias resilientes en adultos colombianos

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2023

Autores

Trejos-Herrera, Ana M.
Alarcón-Vásquez, Yolima
Bahamón, Marly J.
Vinnacia, Stefano
González Gutiérrez, Orlando
Llinás Solano, Humberto
Quevedo-Barrios, Daniela

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Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina)

Resumen

La resiliencia es la competencia de afrontamiento y adaptación a las condiciones estresantes que puede experimentar una persona. Se puede expresar a través de varias estrategias como el optimismo, la perseverancia, la creatividad y el crecimiento positivo frente a la adversidad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala Breve de Estrategias Resilientes (BRCS) en población adulta colombiana. La muestra estuvo conformada por 456 adultos colombianos (41.7 % hombres y 58.3 % mujeres) entre los 18 y los 86 años (M = 46.99). El coeficiente de fiabilidad para el puntaje total de las dos subescalas de la BRCS fue de .77. Se corroboró la validez del constructo a través de la bondad de ajuste del modelo de un factor y la correlación entre los cuatro ítems, por el que se confirmó la estructura del modelo propuesto por Sinclair y Wallston (2004). Se analizó la validez concurrente con medidas de afrontamiento religioso y personalidad Tipo D. Se efectuó un análisis de la discriminación de los reactivos a través del coeficiente de correlación biserial, que indicó que las correlaciones del ítem con la escala total tienen un nivel de discriminación excelente, con valores entre .740 y .807. Los resultados muestran correlaciones significativas entre la resiliencia y el afrontamiento religioso positivo, índices de confiabilidad interna aceptables y consistencia interna, dados los índices del análisis factorial confirmatorio. Se concluye que la evidencia sugiere que la escala BRCS es un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la capacidad de resiliencia en adultos colombianos.
Resilience is the ability to cope and adapt to stressful situations that a person may expe rience. This ability can be expressed through several strategies such as optimism, perse verance, creativity, and positive growth from adversity. Considering the few studies on this subject in the Latin American context and, therefore, the difficulties in evaluating resil ient strategies in adults, this research consid ered to analyze the psychometric character istics of the Brief Resilient Strategies Scale (BRCS). This study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the “Brief Resil ient Coping Scale (BRCS)” in the Colombian adult population. The sample consisted of 456 Colombian adults (41.7 % men and 58.3 % women) between 18 and 86 years old (M = 46.99). The reliability coefficient for the total score of the two BRCS subscales was .77. The construct validity was confirmed by goodness of fit results for applying a one-factor model to the scale and the correlation between the four items, confirming the structure of the model proposed by Sinclair y Wallston (2004), the initial solution of a factor was confirmed, with the same items loading the same factor and with factorial weights greater than .3. Likewise, all the values of the goodness of fit indices are within the accepted ranges for a good fit of the model. That is, the data fit the factorial model well. The concurrent validity was analyzed with measures of religious coping and type D personality. Positive correlations of the BRCS scale were found with positive reli gious coping of the RCOPE, indicating that a greater resilience, more expression of a sense of spirituality. In the same way, the BRCS scale correlates with the DS-14 scale, indi cating that a greater resilience, less tendency to experience negative emotions such as dysphoria, tension, worry, irritability, and anger more extensively over time. In addi tion, the correlations indicated that a higher resilience, lower vulnerability to psycholog ical stress with experiences of strong negative emotions and inhibition of their expression in interaction with other people. The results of the criterion validity suggest that people who use resilient strategies and religious coping are protective factors for the physical and mental health of the adult population, in such a way that people with higher levels of resilience may have a greater expression of a sense spir itual. Likewise, the most resilient subjects use variables such as satisfaction with life, humor, perceived personal competence, optimism, among others, indicative of a heightened sense of internal coherence. Also, the subjects who demonstrated greater resilience capacity were less vulnerable to experiencing negative affect and social inhibition. In general terms, these results suggest that the use of resilient strategies is related to constructs that are theo retically expected from a clinical and mental health perspective. The results show signifi cant correlations between resilience and posi tive religious coping, acceptable internal reli ability indices and internal consistency given the confirmatory factor analysis indices. An item discrimination analysis was performed through the biserial correlation coefficient, the correlations of the item with the total scale have an excellent level of discrimination, with values between .740 and .807. For data analysis, IBM SPSS Software®, Version 25, the R for Statistical Computing program (R Project, 2019) and LISREL 8.80 was used. The evidence suggests that the BRCS scale is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing resilience capacity in Colombian adults. In general, it was found that the BRCS has good psychometric properties in the various coun tries where it has been evaluated, for all the population groups analyzed, with only signifi cant differences between men and women. Keywords: resilient strategies, psychometric properties BRCS Scale.

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Estrategias resilientes, Propiedades psicométricas, Escala BRCS

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